Pope Alexander VI (r. 1492–1503) created 43 new cardinals in 9 consistories: Juan de Borja Lanzol (Llançol) de Romaní, el mayor 31 August 1492. Portugal was granted similar rights of exploration east of the demarcation line. But the rest of the clan still held out, and the papal troops sent against them under Guidobaldo, duke of Urbino and the duke of Gandia, were defeated at Soriano (January 1497). Alexander VI was a pope who lived during the 15 th century, when Italy was experiencing the Renaissance. The papal states were in turmoil, and the powerful Colonna faction seized Ostia in the name of France. The war between France and Spain for the possession of Naples dragged on, and Alexander VI was ever intriguing, ready to ally himself with whichever power promised at the moment most advantageous terms. Attempts to whitewash Alexander’s private conduct have proved abortive. He also issued bulls that led to the Treaty of Tordesillas, theoretically dividing the New World into Spanish and Portuguese spheres. His uncle Alonso de Borgia, bishop of Valencia (later cardinal), supervised his education and endowed him with ecclesiastical benefices while still in his teens. This papal disposition, which was never subsequently recognized by any other European power, was jointly amended by Spain and Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. Pope Alexander VI made many alliances to secure his position. His death was followed by scenes of wild disorder, and Cesare, himself apparently ill or poisoned but who survived, could not attend to business, but sent Don Michelotto, his chief bravo, to sei… During this time period, a life as a Catholic priest was considered to be an excellent career move for young men regardless of their personal piety. Alexander VI, original Spanish name in full Rodrigo de Borja y Doms, Italian Rodrigo Borgia, (born 1431, Játiva, near Valencia [Spain]—died August 18, 1503, Rome), corrupt, worldly, and ambitious pope (1492–1503), whose neglect of the spiritual inheritance of the church contributed to the development of the Protestant Reformation. Famous for his nepotism, his immoral life and his bull of 4.5.1493, through which he divided the new world between Spain and Portugal. He encountered the allies at the Battle of Fornovo, and after a drawn fight cut his way through them and was back in France by November; Ferdinand II was reinstated at Naples soon afterwards, though with Spanish help. Of his many mistresses the one for whom his passion lasted longest was a certain Vannozza (Giovanna) dei Cattani, born in 1442, and wife of three successive husbands. He named his nephew, Rodrigo Borgia, cardinal in 1456. After a short stay, the body was removed altogether from the crypts of Saint Peter's and finally installed in another less well known church. At one point, though, Pope Alexander VI reprimanded the Grand Duke for keeping non-Catholics as advisers. His one thought was family aggrandizement, and while it is unlikely that he meditated making the papacy hereditary in the house of Borgia, he certainly gave away its temporal estates to his children as though they belonged to him. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. On the January 25, 1494 Ferdinand II died and was succeeded by his son Alphonso II of Naples (1494 C.E.–95 C.E.). Della Rovere, feeling that Rome was a dangerous place for him, fortified himself in his bishopric of Ostia at the Tiber's mouth, while Ferdinand II allied himself with Florence, Milan, Venice, and the Pope formed a league against Naples (April 25, 1493) and prepared for war. The Pope was unable to maintain order in his own dominions; the houses of Colonna and Orsini were at open war with each other, but after much fighting they made peace on a basis of alliance against the Pope. Pope Alexander VI made many alliances to secure his position. Cath. Pope Alexander VI Spanish: Alejandro VI one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes. On August 18, 1503 Alexander VI died at the age of 72. Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. Peace was made through Venetian mediation, the Orsini paying 50,000 ducats in exchange for their confiscated lands; the duke of Urbino, whom they had captured, was left by the Pope to pay his own ransom. Jump to: navigation, search. But it was not long before his unbridled passion for endowing his relatives at the expense of the Church and of his neighbors became manifest. The Orsini still remained very powerful, and Alexander VI could count on none but his 3,000 Spaniards. In June 1502 he seized Camerino and Urbino, the news of which capture filled the pope with childish joy. Pope Alexander VII (13 February 1599 – 22 May 1667), born Fabio Chigi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 7 April 1655 to his death in 1667.. He tried to collect troops and put Rome in a state of defence, but his position was most insecure, and the Orsini offered to admit the French to their castles. Alexander VII. (Note on numbering: Pope Alexander V is now considered an anti-pope. His main goal in life appears to have been to elevate his own family (including his children) to whom he gave away papal property as will as well as appointing them to senior posts. The Venetian ambassador reported that the Alexander VI's body was "the ugliest, most monstrous and horrible dead body that was ever seen, without any form or likeness of humanity". This page is dedicated to honoring his pontificate (1492 - 1503). Alexander's successor on the Throne of Saint Peter, Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini, who assumed the name of Pope Pius III (1503), forbade the saying of a Mass for the repose of Alexander VI's soul, saying, "It is blasphemous to pray for the damned." Alexander VI openly used the church to advance his family’s fortunes, and his tenure as pope is widely seen as one of the sparks that ignited the Reformation. Horoscope and astrology data of Pope Alexander VI born on 31 December 1430 Jul.Cal. Charles VIII rapidly advanced southward, and after a short stay in Florence, set out for Rome (November 1494). Oh, a number of popes shtupped on the side. At age 27, Rodrigo was made vice-chancellor of the Vatican. Burchard records that he had to jump on the body to jam him into the coffin and covered it with an old carpet, the only surviving furnishing in the room. No doubt Cesare, who contemplated quitting the Church, was inspired by jealousy of Gandia's influence with the Pope. ( Public domain ) Corruption and Excess of the Papal Court Under Alexander VI . As he needed funds to carry out his various schemes, Alexander VI began a series of confiscations, of which one of the victims was his own secretary, in order to enrich him. Alexander’s cause of death remains a mystery. Faced by these forces, Charles, leaving behind some of his troops in garrison, decided to return home. Updates? The political power of the papacy had declined, and most of Alexander's efforts aimed to restore this but also to protect the remaining papal territories from external threat. Pope Alexander VI dispensing justice in artwork by Zacarías González Velázquez. Téléchargez des images premium que vous ne trouverez nulle part ailleurs. Instead of focusing on spiritual matters, Alexander was more concerned with material wealth and earthly power. 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