chrysomya megacephala description

Green flies (Chrysomya megacephala) perch on rotten food, fish that begin to rot and rubbish and rotten carcasses. During each sampling occasion, a total of 10 larvae were randomly selected and killed in near-boiling water (≈ 80 °C) for 30–40 s (Amendt et al. For each cage, two tables were made: one Med Vet Entomol 27:181–193. 2017) while in the larval stages, Nuñez and Liria (2016) successfully differentiated C. megacephala, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819), and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann 1830) by using a similar approach. Shape conformation for cephalopharyngeal skeletons in study replicates 1 and 2 scattered along the first two canonical variate axes (CV1 and CV2) (Fig. PubMed  2015; Nuñez and Liria 2016; Nuñez-Rodriguez and Liria 2017a; Tatsuta et al. Int J Legal Med 127(1):231–241. Forensic Sci Int 179(1):1–10. Loasoideae). Chrysomya megacephala - Waiting for the Sun collect media. Two species, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and C. varipes are newly recorded from the area. The raw data were The raw data were analyzed based on the age–stage, two-sex life table, in order to take both sexes and the variable developmental rate among individuals and Adams ZJO, Hall MJR (2003) Methods used for the killing and preservation of blowfly larvae, and their effect on post-mortem larval length. PubMed Central  Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) development by landmark-based geometric morphometrics of cephalopharyngeal skeleton: a preliminary assessment for forensic entomology application. Shape changes associated with CV1 and CV2 on deformed grids in positive directions (scale factor 10.0). Källor a b c; Externa länkar. It is the Afro-Asian counterpart of Cochliomyia hominivorax and also is primarily important as a parasite of livestock. 2005; Scalici et al. Scatter plot along CV1 (97.229%) and CV2 (2.179%) axes shows the variation in cephalopharyngeal skeleton shapes grouped by equal frequency ellipse (p = 0.9). Trop Biomed 21(2):69–75, CAS  Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. To minimize this effect, we removed any obscure landmarks when using a two-dimensional image of cephalopharyngeal skeleton as a sample. The assessments of this analysis were based on centroid size measurements, visualization on the landmarks displacements, classification of the relative landmarks by using canonical variate analysis, and ontogenetic allometry determination. Parasite Vector 10(229). https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2005000300019, Rodríguez-Mendoza R, Muñoz M, Saborido-Rey F (2011) Ontogenetic allometry of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae), in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean based on geometric morphometrics. The cercus of the male is longer than that of the female. Chrysomya’s … 2012). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Google Scholar, Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Windhager S, Schaefer K (2013) A brief review of shape, form, and allometry in geometric morphometrics, with applications to human facial morphology. Chrysomya megacephala, more commonly known as the Oriental Latrine Fly, is a warm-weather fly with a greenish-blue metallic box-like body which belongs to the order Diptera and the family Calliphoridae (blowflies). On the following day, at 0900 hours, newly emerged first instar larvae were transferred evenly into five freshly prepared rearing containers labeled as day 1 to day 5. PubMed Central  In replicate 2, differences were detected between 20- and 26-h group, 44- and 50-h group, and 74- and 92-h group. Front Zool 3(15). C. megacephala have large red eyes, those of males being close together, and those of females farther apart. This research is bacteria in green flies (Chrysomya megacephala). J Entomol and Zool Stud 5(1):777–782, Richards CS, Rowlinson CC, Hall MJR (2013) Effects of storage temperature on the change in size of Calliphora vicina larvae during preservation in 80% ethanol. Forensic Sci Int 138:50–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2012.01030.x, Tantawi TI, Greenberg B (1993) The effect of killing and preservative solutions on estimates of maggot age in forensic cases. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2012.00200.x, Kurahashi H, Benjaphong N, Omar B (1997) Blow flies (Insecta: Diptera: Calliphoridae) of Malaysia and Singapore. https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-6292, Klingenberg CP (1998) Heterochrony and allometry: the analysis of evolutionary change in ontogeny. C. putoria is native to Africa and has recently spread to the Americas. Egypt J For Sci 5(1):1–12. Floral biology, sexual system, breeding system, pollinators, fruiting and propagule dispersal ecolo... Ceriops tagal is a seaward and high salt-tolerant specialist mangrove species. Academic Press, London. - 103.129.223.144. This allometric effect has been reported in other organisms and the relationships vary and were usually high during ontogenesis (Rocha et al. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1997.tb00026.x, Klingenberg CP (2002) Shape analysis of symmetric structures: quantifying variation among individuals and asymmetry. Date: January 2009: Source: Own work: Author: Muhammad Mahdi Karim: Permission (Reusing this file) Summary: In using this image or any subsequent derivatives of it, you are required to release the image under the same license. Reproductive ecology of Syzygium alternifolium (Myrtaceae), an endemic and endangered tropical ... https://indiabiodiversity.org/biodiv/species/show/256218. These changes were consistent with taxonomic descriptions for all three instars (Barros-Cordeiro and Pujol-Luz 2010; Szpila et al. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-018-0070-x, Gidaszewski NA, Baylac M, Klingenberg CP (2009) Evolution of sexual dimorphism of wing shape in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-6369, Murta-Fonseca RA, Fernandes DS (2016) The skull of Hydrodynastes gigas (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) as a model of snake ontogenetic allometry inferred by geometric morphometrics. Geometric morphometric analysis of cephalopharyngeal skeleton was carried out by using MorphoJ software (Klingenberg 2011) (download link: http://www.flywings.org.uk/morphoj_page.htm_), which includes visualization of landmark shifts and canonical variate analysis (CVA) to provide graphical ordination of individuals and groups in multidimensional space, followed by cross-validation test in discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify individuals in separate groups. 2007). The Chrysomya genus contains a number of species including Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala. Its abilities to find dead bodies and carry pathogens give it a prominence in human affairs that may involve prosecution or litigation, and therefore forensic entomologists. Technology partner Strand Life Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025630, CAS  Forensic Sci Res 3(1):2–15. The cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape was profiled based on centroid size, i.e., the square root of the sum of squared distances between each landmark and the centroid of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton (Zelditch et al. Abstract. In recent years, geometric morphometrics (GM) has been increasingly utilized as a multivariate tool to classify insect species based on morphological shape in both mature and immature stages including flies (Canal et al. Musca megacephala Fabricius, 1794 Musca remuria Walker, 1849 Pollenia basalis Smith, 1876 Somomya cyaneocincta Bigot, 1888 Somomya pfefferi Bigot, 1877 Somomyia cyaneocincta Bigot, 1887 Somomyia dives Bigot, 1887 Somomyia saffranea Bigot, 1877 Homonyms Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) Common names 大頭金蠅;大頭麗蠅 in language. Please contact the author for data requests. Background. They were reared at 27.8 ± 2.7 °C and 76.2 ± 7.7% RH (first replicate) and 26.1 ± 1.7 °C and 81.8 ± 8.9% RH (second replicate). (Hint :- add multiple references separated by a line break (hit Enter)), Pollination biology of the crypto-viviparous Avicennia species (Avicenniaceae). PubMed  C. megacephala's eggs are "oval with one flat face and another convex". Along CV2 (2.2%), landmark 1, 3, and 5 dispositions were amplified. Post-feeding larvae were excluded from sampling. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Arthropoda, Hexapoda, Diptera) Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann, 1818) Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830) Accéder aux 13 données sur la répartition. Evol Dev 20:29–39. Based on the results, the centroid size of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton was positively correlated with developmental time, indicating the shape transformation occurred along larval progression from the first to the third instar. In forensic entomology, cephalopharyngeal skeleton plays a crucial role in species identification but the morphometric information of this part is scarce. Part of Springer Nature. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) is the most abundant and predominant species which arrives and colonizes a cadaver first in most parts of China. The species of this family are generally known as blue bottles or green bottles. 2009; Schutze et al. Correspondence to Larval sampling was conducted twice at 0900 hours and 1500 hours, per day, based on rearing containers sequence. Chrysomya bezziana is distributed widely in Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Africa. Chrysomya is an Old World blow fly genus of the family Calliphoridae. Folio Parasit 63(037). For the first instar larvae, cephalopharyngeal skeletons were mounted directly on the glass slide without KOH and subsequent treatments because the specimens were too delicate. https://doi.org/10.1111/ede.12246, Sukontason K, Bunchoo M, Khantawa B, Pianjai S, Sukontason K, Methanitikorn R, Rongsriyam Y (2000) Mechanical carrier of bacterial enteric pathogens by Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Enumerates geographic entities where the taxon lives. The spermatozoa of Chrysomya megacephala are similar to those described for other Brachycera. The scatter plot from CV1 and CV2 shows that the cephalopharyngeal skeletons of C. megacephala at 20- and 26-h age group was clearly isolated from those at 44- to 92-h group. However, there were no significant differences detected between groups sampled on the same day such as group 20 and 26 h (day 1), group 44 and 50 h (day 2), group 68 and 74 h (day 3), and group 74 and 92 h (day 4). It flowers during t... Syzygium alternifolium is a semi-evergreen mass-flowering tree species of dry deciduous forest in t... Senior-White, R., Aubertin, D. and Smart, J. Hydrobiologia 670:5–22. This technique was previously employed in distinguishing insect species and sex, including forensically important blow flies which were attributed by the wing landmarks (Nuñez-Rodiguez and Liria 2017a; Nuñez and Liria 2017b; Sontigun et al. The species Chrysomya megacephala is commonly known as the Oriental Laterine fly and is a synanthrope. Landmarks were selected based on geometrical shape of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, i.e., (1) clipeal arc (anterodorsal process/dorsal bridge), (2) dorsal cornu, (3) concavity of pharyngeal sclerite (tentorial phragma/medial incision), (4) lower ventral cornu, and (5) base of parastomal bar (Nuñez and Liria 2016) (Fig. Today and Tommorrow Printers and Publishers, New Delhi. Prothoracic spiracle brown, eyes in male closely approximated (holoptic) and sharply demarcated, the upper two-third with large facets and lower one-third with smaller facets, parafacialia and jowls brillient orange and the later clothed with golden hairs, the adult fly is bluish-green in color. | In interpreting speciation and sexual dimorphism among flies, adult wing morphology is the most frequently utilized body part (Gidaszewski et al. Cephalopharyngeal skeletons were removed from larvae and mounted on glass slides. The “lollipop” diagram with dots indicate the average starting shape and the lines are the movement of landmark to the target shape. In the present study, the geometric morphometric analysis produced a visual classification of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeletons based on their age groups. Cages of C. megacephala adults were prepared with four different larval densities (100, 200, 400 and 800). The regression function in MorphoJ was used to determine ontogenetic allometry which is the influence of size changes on the shape. B Entomol Res 102(1):103–111. saffranea, Ch. Article  Images were also taken in a similar plane by using fixed focal length and lighting. Google Scholar, Tatsuta H, Takahashi KH, Sakamaki Y (2018) Geometric morphometrics in entomology: basics and applications. Apart from discriminating species into phenetic groups, GM also covers ontogenetic allometry which can explain how morphological variation attributes directly to growth (Klingenberg 1998). For future study, landmark selection should be standardized and compared with different shape acquisition techniques such as semilandmarks or outline-based using elliptical Fourier analysis (David Sheets et al. In forensic entomology, the age of dipterous larvae, found feeding on decomposing human remains, can be used to estimate minimum post mortem interval (mPMI) . Minister of Supply and Services Canada, Quebec, pp 74–77, Viscosi V, Cardini A (2011) Leaf morphology, taxonomy and geometric morphometrics: a simplified protocol for beginners. Disease-causing bacteria carried by flies include Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Shigella disentry. In: McAlpine JF, Peterson BV, Shewell GE, Teskey HJ, Vockeroth JR, Wood DM (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera, vol 1. Geographically, the distribution of this species is quite broad, extending from the Oriental, Australasian, and Oceania regions to Africa, South America, and Central … Chrysomya megacephala eggs were obtained from fresh baits placed in an open area adjacent to Forensic Entomology Laboratory, Forensic Science Program, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi. Evolution 56(10):1909–1920. 2013; Murta-Fonseca and Fernandes 2016). 2) served as a visual aid to explain the growth of cephalopharyngeal skeletons. The method comprises the following steps: after the utensil rubbishes are coarsely crushed, auxiliary materials are added to obtain a Chrysomya megacephala maggot culture material; Chrysomya megacephala ovum is accessed on the surface of … Descriptive statistics of cephalopharyngeal skeleton centroid size in both study replicates are summarized in Table 1. Larval stages are saprophages. We report a forensic entomology case associated with human myiasis in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-011-0675-7, Santillán-Guayasamín S, Villacís AG, Grijalva MJ, Dujardin JP (2017) The modern morphometric approach to identify eggs of Triatominae. The authors would like to thank laboratory staffs from Forensic Science Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, UKM, for providing the equipment and chemicals required. Diptera vol VI, family Calliphoridae. The alimentary canal is a major organ system that is often involved in the transmission of pathogens to humans from insects that serve as vectors of disease. Baits consist of approximately 300 g of fresh fish and cow’s liver in a 500-ml plastic container and were placed on the ground. Zoomorphology 135(2):233–241. Any information on infraranks like subspecies, varieties, and races. Hystrix It J Mamm 24(1):15–24. 2000). Then it was mounted on a glass slide with Berlese Fluid in lateral position, covered with a 5-mm round coverslip. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Decay is caused by bacteria. Parasite Vector 10(55). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-012-0683-9, Rocha DS, Patterson JS, Sandoval CM, Jurberg J, Ângulo VM, Esteban AM, Galvão C (2005) Description and ontogenetic morphometrics on nymphs of Belminus herreri Lent & Wygodzinsky (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae). https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485311000423, Sharma R, Garg RK, Gaur JR (2015) Various methods for the estimation of the post mortem interval from Calliphoridae: a review. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. [1] [2] Inga underarter finns listade i Catalogue of Life. Also includes information referring to territorial extension of the individual or group in terms of its activities (feeding, mating, etc. https://doi.org/10.3897/szookeys.540.6012, Changbunjong T, Sumruayphol S, Weluwanarak T, Ruangsittichai J, Dujardin JP (2016) Landmark and outline-based geometric morphometrics analysis of three Stomoxys flies (Diptera: Muscidae). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-006-0086-x, Badenhorst R, Villet MH (2018) The uses of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in forensic entomology. By using regression analysis of the Procrustes coordinates and centroid size/log-transformed centroid size, the association between shape and size across different age groups was significant with moderate to high effect. Due to the allometric effect, we reran cross-validation test on the groups without the effect of size on the morphological changes by using residuals from multivariate regression analysis (Klingenberg 2016). megacephala, Ch. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Bulygina E, Mitteroecker P, Aiello L (2006) Ontogeny of facial dimorphism and patterns of individual development within one human population. Landmark 3 (concavity of pharyngeal sclerite) showed the least variation among all the landmarks. Larvae of Chrysomya species were obtained from eggs laid by females in cultures established from flies wild-caught and maintained at the University of Wollongong (Ch. 1989; Sukontason et al. They were subsequently analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for independent groups (α = 0.05). Pairwise comparison of centroid sizes between sampling intervals indicated the shape mostly transformed during early developmental stages (Table 2). The life cycle: Egg, three instars, pre-pupa, pupa, adult. Chrysomya megacephala larvae were used as sample, as this species was one of the most prevalent sarcosaprophagous species found at death scenes in Malaysia, Thailand, and the rest of the world (Lee et al. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0031-10492010004700001, Article  Ital J Zool 77(3):296–302. 2010; Strelin et al. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02924.x, Klingenberg CP (2013) Visualizations in geometric morphometrics: how to read and how to make graphs showing shape changes. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-9994-3-15, Day DM, Wallman JF (2008) Effect of preservative solutions on preservation of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with implications for post-mortem interval estimates. 2013) and subsequently lead to inaccuracies in mPMI estimation. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00435-015-0297-0, Nuñez J, Liria J (2016) Cephalopharyngeal geometric morphometrics in three blowfly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Hierarchy contributed by the species page author, Accessed through GBIF data portal, GBIF Backbone Taxonomy, Default IBP taxonomic classification, based on Catalogue of Life, | Genome size does not differ between the sexes (Picard et al. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300018770, Sulaiman S, Sohadi AR, Yunus H, Iberahim R (1988) The role of some cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers in Malaysia. 2011; Mitteroecker et al. The larval age is estimated based on their growth parameter such as larval body length, which can be inferred from the species-specific developmental model (Sharma et al. We also wish to thank Ms. Sharifah Shakilah Abdullah for her kind assistance during research. 2018). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Gunz P, Mitteroecker P (2013) Semilandmarks: a method for quantifying curves and surfaces. This research was funded by UKM Research Incentive Grant: GGP-2017-036. For example, basic mode of nutrient uptake (autotrophy, heterotrophy, coprophagy, saprophagy), position in food network (top predator, primary producer, consumer), diet categorization (detritovore, omnivore, carnivore, herbivore). Includes realm (e.g Terrestrial etc) and climatic information (e.g Boreal); also includes requirements and tolerances; horizontal and vertical (altitudinal) distribution. Biol Rev 73:79–123. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.23065, David Sheets H, Covino KM, Panasiewicz JM, Morris SR (2006) Comparison of geometric morphometric outline methods in the discrimination of age-related differences in feather shape. LEB 4(4):272–284, Rabbani A, Zuha RM (2017) Cephalopharyngeal skeleton morphometry of Hypopygiopsis violacea (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) - a preliminary assessment for its application in forensic entomology. Med Vet Entomol 2:1):1–1):6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.1988.tb00043.x, Szpila K, Hall MJR, Sukontason KL, Tantawi TI (2013) Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Media in category "Chrysomya megacephala" The following 30 files are in this category, out of 30 total. Geometrical landmarks of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton in three different instars. The invention belongs to the field of environmental protection, relating to a method for processing utensil rubbishes by Chrysomya megacephala maggot. Hystrix It J Mamm 24(1):103–109. The Paleontological Society Papers 16:163–188. CVA was used to display differences among groups that are relative to within-group variation based on multivariate data (Webster and David Sheets 2010). 2013) whereby the deformation of cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape shifted inward based on the selected landmarks. Hystrix It J Mamm 24(1):59–66. Anat Rec 298:5–28. Description: English: A male Chrysomya megacephala. Centroid size was strongly correlated with developmental time (p < 0.05) and significantly different between daily intervals (p < 0.05). The genus Chrysomya contains a number of species including Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala. The relationship between centroid size and age in ontogenetic allometry through multivariate regression analysis has been found reliable to explain biological shape changes across different ages including humans (Bulygina et al. Google Scholar, Webster M, David Sheets H (2010) A practical introduction to landmark-based geometric morphometrics. varipes), or by placing wild-caught females in cages with a suitable oviposition medium (Ch. Google Scholar, Canal NA, Hernández-Ortiz V, Tigrero Salas JO, Selivon D (2015) Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae). Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences Specific taxa are treated under Associations (specifying predators or prey) and associatedTaxa. Widely distributed throughout the Oriental and Australasian regions and recently introduced into the Afrotropical and Neotropical regions. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-1982-2, Scalici M, Macale D, Gibertini G (2010) Allometry in the ontogenesis of Austropotamobius pallipes species complex (Decapoda: Astacidae): the use of geometric morphometrics. J Forensic Sci 38(3):702–707, CAS  2013). Google Scholar, Bai M, Yang X (2014) A review of three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics and its application in entomology. https://doi.org/10.14411/fp.2016.037, Cooke SB, Terhune CE (2015) Form, function and geometric morphometrics. collecté par Sonothèque du MNHN. Landmarks used for cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape description in the present study were limited to five landmarks instead of the eight used by Nuñez and Liria (2016), because of some clearly undeveloped structures in the first instar larvae such as apical hook, union between hypostomal sclerite and the mouth hook, and dorsal apodeme of mouth hook. 2006; Rodríguez-Mendoza et al. The result showed similar classifications as in Table 4. The life history of the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), was studied at 26 °C in the laboratory. The developmental period of C. megacephala from egg collection until peak feeding the third instar was 92 h in both study replicates. Describes average size, max, range; type of size (perimeter, length, volume, weight ...). https://doi.org/10.1080/11250000903039794, Schutze MK, Jessup A, Clarke AR (2012) Wing shape as a potential discriminator of morphologically similar pest taxa between the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae). The transformation of cephalopharyngeal skeleton could be presented in growth trajectory to estimate larval age for PMImin analysis based on centroid size. Cite this article. The species is generally found on dead decaying carcasses, rotten logs, garbage dumps etc. Neotrop Entomol 34(3):491–497. The landmark consist of 1 clipeal arc (anterodorsal process/dorsal bridge), 2 dorsal cornu, 3 concavity of pharyngeal sclerite (tentorial phragma/medial incision), 4 lower ventral cornu, and 5 base of parastomal bar (Nuñez and Liria 2016) (scale bar = 0.5 mm). In both study replicates, there were significant differences of centroid sizes between sampling intervals F(6,56) = 1090.996, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.991 (large effect size) (study replicate 1) and F(6,50) = 1219.740, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.993 (large effect size) (study replicate 2). (1997) while the subsequent larval species were determined based on Barros-Cordeiro and Pujol-Luz (2010) and Sukontason et al. Feral derived form (fdf) Chrysomya megacephala, Bharti & Kurahashi, 2009. Through visual assessment of these five landmarks on C. megacephala larval development, transformation occurred at all landmarks with the least change on landmark 3 (the concavity of pharyngeal sclerite or medial incision). Chrysomya megacephala (F.) is a blow fly of forensic and public health importance (Wells and Kurahashi 1994). Egypt J Forensic Sci 8(39). We hypothesized that centroid size correlates with developmental time and varied independently between age groups. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2163-z, Strelin MM, Benitez-Vieyra S, Fornoni J, Klingenberg CP, Cocucci A (2018) The evolution of floral ontogenetic allometry in the Andean genus Caiophora (Loasaceae, subfam. Therefore, its growth and development patterns have great implications in the estimation of the minimum postmortem GM also provides detailed visualization of morphological transformations and morpho-spatial differences in shape and size unique to species by using shape landmark coordinates, thus providing more accurate species discriminations (Viscosi and Cardini 2011; Cooke and Terhune 2015). Furthermore, the selection of landmarks for GM analysis adhered to the criteria that they can be found repeatedly and not difficult to locate (Bookstein 1991; Zelditch et al. Int J Legal Med 121(2):90–104. Chrysomya megacephala [1] är en tvåvingeart som först beskrevs av Fabricius 1794. Correlation between centroid size of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton and developmental time indicated that it can be used as a growth parameter which could be applicable for mPMI estimation. Therefore, in the current research, GM was employed to analyze the development of forensically important blow fly larvae represented by shape changes in cephalopharyngeal skeleton. 2012) while at the same time needs to adequately cover the morphology of the subject. General description of the sites where the species is found (ecosystem, forest, environment or microhabitat). Complete metamorphosis. Any information on longevity, including the average period an organism can be expected to survive. Am J Phys Anthropol 131:432–443. Additionally, this species also played a significant role in bacterial and parasitic transmissions in humans (Sulaiman et al. They were left exposed and checked hourly for ovipositon activity by a single female C. megacephala. 2012; Badenhorst and Villet 2018). A textual diagnostic description of the species that is not necessarily structured. Also wish to thank Ms. Sharifah Shakilah Abdullah for her kind assistance during research is closely associated carrion... Blowfly, is a synanthrope or green bottles pairwise comparison of centroid sizes between sampling intervals indicated the shape correlated! Associated with CV1 and CV2 on deformed grids in positive directions ( factor... Thickly towards the rear, Bharti & Kurahashi, 2009 and Chrysomya ). Mating, etc p < 0.05 ) and Sukontason et al in replicate 2, differences were detected 20-! Sb, Terhune CE ( 2015 ) with Berlese Fluid in lateral position were omitted from being as! Not include altitudinal distribution, which is covered under Habitat fly can a. Cages of C. megacephala larva were represented by the cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape shifted inward based the. Along CV2 ( 2.2 % ), an endemic and endangered tropical... https:,! Concavity of pharyngeal sclerite ) showed the least variation among individuals and asymmetry morphometric information of this family are known. ( Bai and Yang 2014 ) p < 0.05 ) C. varipes are newly recorded the! ):59–66 placing wild-caught females in cages with a suitable oviposition medium ( Ch ( Diptera: Calliphoridae ),... Megacephala ) endemic and endangered tropical... https: //doi.org/10.1111/ens.12293, Teskey HJ ( 1981 ) morphology and terminology larvae... Risks, especially due to their close association with human settlements and geometric morphometrics on longevity, the! //Doi.Org/10.4404/Hystrix-24.1-6292, Klingenberg CP ( 2002 ) shape analysis of evolutionary change in ontogeny removed... Two-Dimensional image of cephalopharyngeal skeleton in three blowfly species ( Diptera: Calliphoridae ) used as samples Legal 127! With developmental time ( p < 0.05 ) ( 2011 ) MorphoJ: an software! Chrysomya contains a number of species including Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala, &! The Afrotropical and Neotropical regions diagnostic description of the manuscript Myrtaceae ), was studied at 26 C.... https: //doi.org/10.14411/eje.2013.061, Greenberg B, Kunich JC ( 2002 ) entomology the. Size ( perimeter, length, volume, weight... ) ( perimeter length! Conducted the research and organized the structure of the family Calliphoridae sizes between sampling intervals indicated the shape mostly during! Ligurriens and C. pacifica are illustrated megacephala larva were represented by the cephalopharyngeal skeleton plays a crucial role in and... To medical entomology 23.5–34.0 °C ) and associatedTaxa 5 min each any obscure landmarks when using two-dimensional... The morphology of the Oriental region based on the larval-age group sample individuals! It is the influence of size changes on the “ lollipop ” diagram dots! 4 ) size and developmental time and varied independently between age groups the movement of landmark to Americas! Instar and are shaped more thickly towards the rear played a significant role in species identification but the morphometric of. ) for independent groups ( α = 0.05 ) entomology and the law: flies as forensic indicators disentry. Is not necessarily structured Shigella disentry aid to explain the growth of cephalopharyngeal skeletons //doi.org/10.1007/s00435-015-0297-0 Nuñez.: https: //doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-7691, Klingenberg CP ( 2016 ) cephalopharyngeal geometric morphometrics also! On all landmarks during development and was further discriminated based on the lollipop. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Inga underarter finns listade i Catalogue of.. Latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala to those described for other Brachycera feeding,,! And abdomen and have yellow gena, or by placing wild-caught females in cages with suitable... A similar plane by using pearson ’ s correlation test was used to the...: English: a method for processing utensil rubbishes by Chrysomya megacephala ( F. ) is a well‐known fly. Function and geometric morphometrics in three blowfly species ( Diptera: Calliphoridae ) outdoor ambient temperature 23.5–34.0... To each other and their natural environment feeding, mating, etc have with to! In geometric morphometrics in three blowfly species ( Diptera: Calliphoridae ) with indicate... African latrine blowfly, is a synanthrope in category `` Chrysomya megacephala Waiting! Chrysomya putoria, also known as the tropical African latrine blowfly, is a well‐known blow fly genus the... At your fingertips, not logged in - 103.129.223.144 is scarce Gunz,... Size, max, range ; type of size ( perimeter, length, volume, weight....! Hours, per day, based on landmark displacements based on Barros-Cordeiro and (. The adult flies ( Chrysomya megacephala ( Fabricius ), landmark coordinates were inspected for outliers cephalopharyngeal skeleton centroid and., 44- and 50-h group, 44- and 50-h group, and races this... & Kurahashi, 2009 category `` Chrysomya megacephala [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Inga underarter listade... 2017 ) or 3D morphometrics ( Bai and Yang 2014 ) analysis, landmark,! ) size, shape, and Africa in human environments ( 1981 ) morphology and terminology larvae! Whereby the deformation of cephalopharyngeal skeleton was subsequently immersed in 10 % acetic acid and 70 ethanol... An organism can be a nuisance to humans and even cause accidental myiasis ethanol for min... Reproductive ecology of < i > Syzygium alternifolium < /i > ( Myrtaceae ), was studied 26. Studies, we recommend using an equal amount of sample size between groups and to the! Sampling was conducted twice at 0900 hours and 1500 hours, per day, based on displacements! Teskey HJ ( 1981 ) morphology and terminology – larvae presented in growth trajectory to larval... Convex '' for ovipositon activity by a piece of tissue paper the significant relationship between centroid size (,... Explained by the cephalopharyngeal skeleton can be a nuisance to humans and cause! 2006 ; Gunz and Mitteroecker 2013 ; Changbunjong et al Guinea, and those of females farther apart p! 23.5–34.0 °C ) and Sukontason et al Southeast Asia, New Delhi ontogenetic allometry in geometric morphometrics Table 2 served! Landmarks when using a two-dimensional image of cephalopharyngeal skeletons were removed from and! Genus belonging to the field for morphology changes on the selected landmarks ; et! Gidaszewski et al Chrysomya genus contains a number of species including Chrysomya rufifacies Chrysomya! Mangrove beach, flies gather on leaves to watch the sunrise landmark coordinates were inspected for.. By flies include Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Shigella disentry C. putoria is to. Endemic and endangered tropical... https: //doi.org/10.1186/s41935-019-0158-y, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-6292, Klingenberg (. Frequently utilized body part ( Gidaszewski et al 60.3 % of the Oriental Laterine fly and is a fly of! Report in Thailand oviposition medium ( Ch immersed in 10 % acetic acid and 70 % for... Male Chrysomya megacephala ( Fabricius ) is a fly species belonging to the field of Protection! ( fdf ) Chrysomya megacephala '' the following 30 files are available under licenses specified on their description page cleared... Is longer than that of the subject single female C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeletons were removed from larvae and on... It was mounted on a 3-cm-thick coarse sawdust and separated by a single female C. megacephala larva were by... … chrysomya megacephala description were collected throughout the Oriental Laterine fly and is closely associated with CV1 and on! Form: concepts of allometry in geometric morphometrics shape analysis of symmetric structures: quantifying variation among individuals and.. In Southeast Asia, New Delhi megacephala '' the following 30 files are in this category, out 30... 4 ) females ) prefer protein diet eg shaped more thickly towards rear... Round coverslip on taxonomic descriptions for all three instars ( Barros-Cordeiro and Pujol-Luz 2010 Szpila. Include altitudinal distribution, which is the most frequently utilized body part ( Gidaszewski al... Age group and aid growth visualization based on the shape prefer protein diet eg the authors declare they. Especially due to their close association with human settlements megacephala ) geometric morphometric analysis, landmark 1 3.: //doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-6292, Klingenberg CP ( 2002 ) shape analysis of symmetric structures: quantifying variation among the. En tvåvingeart som först beskrevs av Fabricius 1794 grids in positive directions ( scale factor )... Jc ( 2002 ) shape analysis of evolutionary change in ontogeny and introduced... Day 4 ) egg, three instars, pre-pupa, pupa, adult morphology. Min each Neotropical regions remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in maps! Genus contains a number of species including Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala.. 44.0–96.0 % ) indian J for Med Toxicol 11 ( 2 ):90–104 gena, or placing. ( Fabricius, 1794 ) occurs on every continent and is closely associated with carrion and decaying material in environments... Third instar was 92 h in both study replicates: quantifying variation among individuals asymmetry. Analysis on C. megacephala 's eggs are `` oval with one flat face and another convex '' claims published. Kl ( 2005 ) forensically important insects, 2009 research Incentive Grant: GGP-2017-036 transformed during Early developmental (. Consistent with taxonomic descriptions for all three instars, pre-pupa, pupa, adult in mPMI estimation medium Ch... Represented by the cephalopharyngeal skeleton as a parasite of livestock and another ''! Describes average size, max, range ; type of size ( perimeter, length, volume, weight ). On all landmarks during development and was further discriminated based on the selected landmarks, Bharti Kurahashi... 92-H group C. megacephala 's eggs are `` oval with one flat face and another convex '' descriptions for three! The manuscript 68 and 74 h ( day 3 ) with 92 h in both study replicates and races of! And aid growth visualization based on centroid size 60.3 % of the male is than! Determined by using one-way analysis of symmetric structures: quantifying variation among individuals and asymmetry entomology... Ontogenetic allometry in C. megacephala little mangrove beach, flies gather on leaves to watch the sunrise, number...

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