history of fort macon

All students are encouraged to wear closed-toe shoes for walking. The ditch was defended by four “Counterfire” rooms in the covertway which swept all avenues with rifle fire and small cannon firing anti-personnel ammunition. This project was initially engineered by Robert E. Lee, who later became a general of the Confederate States Army. The War Between the States began on April 12, 1861, and only two days elapsed before local North Carolina militia forces from Beaufort arrived to seize the fort for the state of North Carolina and the Confederacy. The eastern point of Bogue Banks was determined to be the best location from which a fort might guard the entrance to Beaufort Inlet. Other forts on the coast (Sumter, Pulaski, Jackson, Jefferson, Morgan, Monroe, etc.) (Submitted on June 1, 2010, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.) One side guards mouth of inlet, two guard channel and back sounds, one looks over harbor, and one covers beach approaches. (North Carolina was one of three states requiring this arrangement.). Fort Macon was designed by Brig. Construction of the fort that now stands began in 1826. After several skirmishes with Confederate soldiers, Parke’s men succeeded in entrenching as close as 1400 yards from the fort, while three batteries of siege guns (two batteries of mortars and one of 30-pounder Parrott Rifle guns) were established 1280 to 1680 yards from the fort. Walk-up camping are available only at certain loops at Jordan Lake and Kerr Lake and at backcountry campsites with self-registration boxes at trailheads. Four vessels of the Federal blockading fleet joined in from the ocean, but the fort’s guns quickly drove them off. (950–1100 AD) based on the practice of agriculture. "Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy fathers have set" - Proverbs Early in the 1800s, continued strained relations with Great Britian caused the United States government to build a national defense chain of forts for protection. Droppings were carried away by the tide. Defend the Harbor against hostile warships and sea attack. On the beach were four 155 mm seacoast guns, later replaced by 2 6-inch navy guns, mounted on concrete platforms. Volume I, pages 652-54. It was named after North Carolina’s eminent statesman of the period, Nathaniel Macon. U.S. War Department, War of Rebellion, A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 70 Volumes in 128 Parts (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1880-1901). 2303 East Fort Macon Rd Three demands to surrender were refused by the fort. During the Reconstruction Era, the U.S.Army actively occupied Fort Macon until 1877. COVID-19 information for parks under Modified Stay at Home Order, Maintain a social distance of 6 feet, regardless of the behavior of others, Bring a mask or face covering; they are required to be worn inside buildings and when social distancing cannot be implemented, Share the trail — warn other trail users of your presence, step to the side or wait at the end of a bridge, Do not enter restrooms until others have cleared out and please be patient when staff is cleaning them, Wash or sanitize your hands before, during, and after your visit, Do not share equipment like phones or cameras with other visitors, If the park seems crowded when you arrive, come back another time, Stay at home if you are exhibiting symptoms. Fort Dobbs was begun in 1756 during French and Indian War, but the war ended and the fort was never completed. Some 9.2 million bricks were used. weekdays only, 121 W. Jones St. (Submitted on May 29, 2010, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.) Separating the two is the “Ditch,” the bottom of which is near mean low tide level. After 1903 the fort was abandoned for years. History Macon was founded on the site of the Ocmulgee Old Fields, where the Creek Indians lived in the 18th century. North Carolina leaders recognized the need for coastal defenses to prevent future attacks and began efforts to construct forts. History of Fort Macon and coastal defense In modern times, the danger of naval attack along the North Carolina coast seems remote, but during the 18th and 19th centuries, the region around Beaufort was highly vulnerable to attack. Fort Macon Looking over the fort's moat at the sally port. Gen. Simon Bernard and built by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Construction began in 1826 and lasted eight years. A concise general history of Fort Macon. Paul Branch, a ranger/historian at Fort Macon has illustrated his book with original engineering … The wall of the covertway (counterscarp wall) is 12 to 15 feet high. Fort Macon was designed by Brig. For about 11 years during this era, since there were no state or federal penitentiaries in the military district of North and South Carolina, Fort Macon was used as a civil and military prison, until 1876. These men were both Northerners, so the local newspapers thought it humorous that two more “Yankees” had been gotten by a Confederate cannon ball some 80 years after the battle. The prisoners were mostly Government prisoners with an occasional civil prisoner (such as a murderer or rapist) thrown in. As a part of this defense, a small masonry fort named Fort Hampton, after a North Carolina Revolutionary War hero, was built to guard Beaufort Inlet during 1808-09. Vol. There was such exetensive damage that Col. White was forced to surrender the following morning, April 26. Gen. John G. Parke was sent to capture Fort Macon. A good account of the Confederate occupation of Fort Macon, 1861- 62. A total of 54 guns were mounted for its defense (consisting of 10- and 8-inch Columbiads, also rifled and smoothbore 32- and 24-pounders). Fort Macon was deactivated after 1877 only to be regarrisoned by state troops once again during the summer of 1898 for the Spanish-American War. There is plenty of history to learn about and sights to see while you visit with us here at Fort Macon State Park. The stairways provided added protection against shellfire. Just before the Federal attack (March, 1862), the garrison was reduced to five artillery companies, all of which were from North Carolina, and two of which were from Carteret County. Two American soldiers were injured in Casemate 2 when a cannon shot they had placed in the fireplace as an andiron exploded from the heat of the fire. Welcome to the Official U.S. Coast Guard Station Fort Macon Facebook page. Fort Macon was part of a massive coastal defense program launched by President James Monroe to protect the coast without having to maintain a large navy. Active garrisons occupied Fort Macon in 1834-36, 1842-44, and 1848-49. There are no equipment rentals and concessions available. The fort was built in 1826 and garrisoned in 1834. North Carolina Confederate forces occupied the fort for a year, preparing it for battle and arming it with 54 heavy cannons. By Craig Swain, May 2, 2010 3. Construction of the present fort … For campgrounds with 24-hour access, please observe the Night-Time Public Closure Period guidelines and do not leave the campground between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m. Fort Macon, located on the eastern tip of the Bogue Banks along North Carolina's central coast, is an early-19th Century fort which has been restored as the centerpiece of one of the state's busiest State Parks. This ambitious undertaking involved the construction of thirty-eight new, permanent coastal forts known as the Third System. Battle damage was repaired and the Federals made certain they installed mortars for defense, so they would not repeat the mistake of the Confederates. It was used in this period as a Federal prison since there were no such prison facilities in either North or South Carolina during the Reconstruction. Early in 1862, Union forces commanded by Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside swept through eastern North Carolina, and part of Burnside’s command under Brig. There are 26 casemates in fort (including sally port). Seven Confederates were killed, eighteen wounded. 5.G.1 - Understand how human activity has and continues to shape the United States. Fort Macon was named for Nathaniel Macon, very prominent North Carolina statesman of that period. Fort Macon was held by both Confederate and Union forces throughout history and Blackbeard the pirate was documented to pass alongside the fort through Beaufort Inlet It was sometimes filled with water which came up from the sound though a canal and passed under the outer wall by means of a culvert. The perceived threat was from countries such as Spain and Britain, who had both invaded the port in the eighteenth century. Visitor centers and park offices are open, and masks or face coverings are required to enter. The fort’s Confederate garrison was then paroled as prisoners of war. Fort Macon State Park is the second most visited state park in North Carolina, with an annual visitation of 1.3 million, despite being the third smallest park in North Carolina with 389 acres (1.57 km 2). Available at Fort Macon Bookstore and at bookstores in Morehead City/Beaufort Area, Paul Branch, Fort Macon, A History (Charleston, SC: Nautical and Aviation Publishing Company of America, 1999) The definitive history of the Fort. Weather appropriate clothing. White, of Mississippi. The purple-gray stone used for stairways and coping on walls is Connecticut Freestone. Siege of Fort Macon, 29 March-26 April 1862, The final major success during General Burnsides expedition to the North Carolina coast in early 1862 The final major success during General Burnside’s expedition to the North Carolina coast in early 1862. expedition to the North Carolina coast in early 1862. Today, Fort Macon is one of North Carolina’s most visited state parks, receiving more than a million visitors a year. For more information on The fort had been hit 560 times by artillery fire. The fort was completed in December, 1834, and was improved with further modifications during 1841-46. After noon, every shot fired at the fort struck it or exploded over it. Please check the park pages for more information about camping procedures. The fort had no mortars of its own and was unable to do much damage to the Federals in return. Fort Macon's largest public parking area, the Boathouse, is located close to the entrance, but history buffs will want to drive on until they reach the official entrance to the Fort Macon Historic Site. Fort Macon: A History Paul Branch This is a story of Fort Macon, one of America’s most visited forts, describing the many dramatic parts it has played in our history. The fort “sink” was located at the head of the marsh for the big business. The fort was virtually abandoned except for caretakers until 1898 when, at the outbreak of the Spanish-American war, it was occupied by a portion of the Third North Carolina Volunteers, an all-Black regiment commanded by Colonel James Young, also an African American. 649 were here. For the 12 years after the war, Federal soldiers continued to occupy the fort. 8.C.1 - Understand how different cultures influenced North Carolina and the United States. 7.G.1 - Understand how geography, demographic trends, and environmental conditions shape modern societies and regions. Robert E. Lee, a captain of Army Engineers, visited the fort in December, 1840, making a thorough inspection of it. The purpose was to prevent enemy soldiers from overrunning the ditch and moat to penetrate into the main part of the fort. At the start of the Civil War, North Carolina seized Fort Macon. During the period 1841-46 engineers made structural improvements to the fort's defenses. The fort had three magazines to store powder and ammunition, one located behind each of the three stairways. Fort Macon State Park is the most visited park in the state, with over one million visitors passing through here each year. The most prisoners confined here at one time was 120, and the west wing was used mainly for their quarters. The Confederates responded with at least 21 of their 54 guns which could bear on the Federal positions. Named in honor of Nathaniel Macon, a United States congressman and senator and a leading early-republic statesman of North Carolina, Fort Macon was built after the War of 1812 to defend America and North Carolina from Federal fire was missing the fort for most of the morning due to obscuring battle smoke. The Battle of Fort Macon was fought there during March and April 1862. By 4:30 p.m., two of the fort’s powder magazines were in danger of being hit and exploded by Federal shells. Volume VII, pages 277-83. The lack of funds and the usual bureaucracy kept any work from being done until about 1934. Construction began in 1826 and lasted for eight years. The danger of naval attack along the North Carolina coast seems remote now, but during the 18th and 19th centuries the region around Beaufort was highly vulnerable to attack. Wells outside the fort provided drinking water. The state quickly garrisoned the fort with more companies, making in all about 900 men. Gen. Simon Bernard and built by the US Army Corps of Engineers. "Lifesavers of the Crystal Coast" DESCRIPTION Station Fort Macon's primary goals are to serve the Crystal Coast's boating public, while performing the United States Coast Guard's 11 primary missions. Camping reservations must be done online. Chief Engineers who were responsible for constructing the fort were Lieutenant William Eliason, Captain John L. Smith and Lieutenant George Dutton, U.S. Army Engineers. In 1756 construction began there on a small fascine fort known as Fort Dobbs. By the 1940s the park was serving the public, thanks to their massive efforts. On April 25, 1862, Parke’s Union forces bombarded the fort with heavy siege guns for 11 hours, aided by the fire of four Union navy gunboats in the ocean offshore and by floating batteries in the sound to the east. General John G. Parke, was then sent down from New Bern to capture Fort Macon. While the fort easily repulsed the Union gunboat attack, the Union land batteries, utilizing new rifled cannons, hit the fort 560 times. From its completion in 1834 until the start of the U.S. Civil War in 1861 it was garrisoned for less than six years and in … I haven't been here in years. Gen. Simon Bernard and built by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Since that time, the fort has been restored by the State. 4.G.1.SS - Understand how human, environmental and technological factors affect the growth and development of North Carolina. By 1825, storms and the shifting inlet had washed away some 200 yards of beach, including Fort Hampton. Finally, the garrison was reduced and the living conditions improved. Fort Hawkins, birthplace of Macon, GA. Archaeology, Car shows,We are extremely proud of the new Macon - Bibb County Seal and we would like to thank Mayor Robert A.B. *, View the contact sheet for the email address and phone number of each park », (General information – please do not call this number for camping or park-specific questions), Office Hours Construction began in 1826 and lasted for eight years. Volume I, pages 247-257. Radio and communications rooms, map-plotting rooms, and so forth were housed in the fort. Richard S. Barry, “Fort Macon: Its History,” North Carolina Historical Review, Swim beaches and areas are closed. Fort Macon State Park. Work started in 1826 and lasted 8 years to 1834. It's a great dayhike for adults and families year-round. One Federal killed, three wounded. The purpose of Fort Macon was to guard Beaufort Inlet and Beaufort Harbor, the only major deep water ocean port in North Carolina. Check out our regularly or seasonally available activities below. Fort Macon Marker By Craig Swain, May 2, 2010 4. Brig. Blackbeard and other pirates passed through Beaufort Inlet at will, while successive wars with Spain, France and Great Britian during the Colonial Period provided a constant threat of coastal raids by enemy warships. Its guns protected the harbor through the War of 1812, but it was afterward abandoned. The fort was completed in December, 1834, and it was improved with further modification during 1841-46. The wall inside fort overlooking parade ground is 17 feet high. The Friends of Fort Macon is an all-volunteer, tax exempt organization. Paul R. Branch Jr. has served as a park ranger and historian at Fort Macon State Park for more than 30 years. The actual battle reports of the commanders involved in the Siege of Fort Macon are reprinted here. Cost of construction was $463,790. (ISBN 1.877853-45-3). During 1934-1935 the Civilian Conservation Corps restored the fort and established public recreational facilities which enabled Fort Macon State Park to officially open May 1, 1936, as North Carolina’s first functioning state park. Total cost of the fort was $463,790. The War of 1812 demonstrated the weakness of existing coastal defenses and prompted the United States government into beginning construction on an improved chain of coastal fortifications for national defense. Because there was a seepage problem with salt water, the water was never used for drinking. Gutters in the walls caught rain water filtering through the sand from above and piped it to the four large cisterns located in the corners below the parade ground (they could hold 22,000 gallons). Finally, in 1903, the U.S.Army completely abandoned the fort. The fort commandant was Col. Moses J. Federal forces continued to occupy Fort Macon through the remainder of the war. This battle was the second time in history that rifled cannons had been used against a fort and demonstrated the obsolescence of fortifications such as Fort Macon as a way of defense. The ceilings are arched to give added strength and dissipate concussion from shells exploding on terrepleins or from guns firing in battle. He was 27 years old, ranked number two in the West Point Class of 1858, and suffered from severe epilepsy. Often, an ordnance sergeant acting as a caretaker was the only person stationed by the Army at the fort. It was named after North Carolina 's eminent statesman of the period, Nathaniel Macon. *Note: Works well combined with Civil War Musket Firing program. In 1876 the prisoners were transferred elsewhere and by April of 1877 all the garrison troops at the fort were withdrawn. Daniel H. Hill, Bethel to Sharpsburg, 2 Volumes (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Company, 1926). On October 1, 1946, the Army returned the fort and the park to the state. The fort was first garrisoned in December, 1834, although no guns were given for its defense until a year afterward. 4.H.2.SS - Understand how notable structures, symbols and place names are significant to North Carolina. Thank you for following these guidelines and helping us keep you, your fellow visitors and our staff safe as we open facilities at our parks. American Prairie Filmworks Recommended for you It was named in honor of Nathaniel Macon (1758-1837), a U.S. congressman, senator, and leading Republican statesman of North Carolina. Fort Macon guarded Beaufort Inlet and Beaufort Harbor, North Carolina’s only major deep-water ocean port. Reconstruction was ending and Government troops were being removed from the South. 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