social connectedness scale 8 items

The majority of the student sample (n = 1905; 87%), reported to have consumed alcohol in the past 12 months. Folk, Debra Mashek, June Tangney, Jeffrey Stuewig, Kelly E. Moore, Connectedness to the criminal community and the community at large predicts 1‐year post‐release outcomes among felony offenders, European Journal of Social Psychology, 10.1002/ejsp.2155, 46, 3, (341-355), (2015). Table 3. The dependent variable for the analysis was low risk (n ≤ 8) or hazardous (≥8) drinkers. Another Australian university study found 46.6% of 18 - 24 years old consumed alcohol at hazardous levels using the same binary analysis of low risk and hazardous AUDIT scores as this study [49] . Background . Demographic factors included gender (due to low numbers, the “other” gender option was removed from the logistic regression analysis), age, faculty, and international student status. The university setting provides a unique environment for students to become involved in clubs and groups while forming strong social bonds with others [7] [36] . Table 2. Previous research has identified social isolation as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems (e.g., Berkman, 1995; Cacioppo & Hawkley, 2003; Cacioppo, Hughes, Waite, Hawkley, & Thisted, 2006; House, 2001). The SCS-R 16 is comprised of 20 items Copyright © 2006-2021 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. All Rights Reserved. Commonly reported motivators for drinking among students can be categorized as social [8] , coping [9] and conformity motives [6] [10] . 411 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<887C066582851745AC2B52FD207151BE><4A87382C2991AF428A8FC09C57713231>]/Index[379 69]/Info 378 0 R/Length 143/Prev 318433/Root 380 0 R/Size 448/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream In recent work along these lines, we introduce a new measure of social connectedness between US county-pairs, as well as between US counties and foreign countries (Bailey et al. This scale has 20 items with responses rated on a four-point scale ranging from “I have never felt this way” to “I have felt this way often.” The context of alcohol consumption, social connectedness and social identity is a pertinent issue for both the university and health practitioners [65] . Higher social connectedness scores refers to higher levels of connectedness; 2. Only 22.2% of students who reported attending no classes reported hazardous drinking levels however non-attenders comprised only 7.6% (n = 144) of the sample. The onset of mental health issues is typically seen around the age at which young adults are completing higher education [17] . The study aims to explore the association between levels of alcohol consumption, mental health, social connectedness and social identity among university students. h�b```�U�R�B ���������@�r�S���P�F8S:�,w�t1Mu��`��!���˓/_�:3��ð���W�{, This study found that high levels of social connectedness predicted hazardous alcohol consumption. While positive associations between school connectedness and mental health have been found [59] social connectedness may increase some risky behaviors [60] . These findings are consistent with previous research that highlights male and domestic students are at risk for hazardous consumption of alcohol [4] . Students who never participated in community sports were more likely to record low risk drinking compared to hazardous drinking (66.8% vs 33.2%). This scale consists of 16 items about information would be given out to the other. “During the social interactions, I felt “in tune” with the person/s around me” and “During the social interactions, I felt close to the person/s,” using a 7-point scale (1 = not at all true, 7 = very true). Outcomes were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Social Connectedness Scale, Social Identity Scale and measures of paid employment and study (hours), and participation in sports and other clubs. For analysis responses were collapsed into three categories (None, 1 - 10hours and 11 - 20+). Students who spent more hours in paid employment were 1.2 times more likely to consume alcohol at hazardous levels. Students who did not participate in paid employment were more likely to report low risk drinking compared to hazardous levels of consumption (69.1% vs 30.9%). Students who spent more hours per week in paid employment were more likely to consume alcohol at hazardous levels than those with no or few work hours. Perth, Australia, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The scale comprised of 20 items using a 6-point Likert-type scale in which response format is from 1=strongly disagree to 6=strongly agree. h�bbd```b``>"�A$�'��_ y&��HV}�JM0{�dYfg��`�,��4�d�U�"Uf�Ȕ�%$#�@l� 6�D����ma��L�� A$�1 ���FF.� �Ä���x�@� �+� Given the benefits of social connectedness, further research is needed to determine how to enhance this as a protective factor as opposed to encouraging hazardous drinking. The SCS is assessed on a 6-point scale (1 = … Mediators of low and hazardous drinking using univariate analysis (continuous variables). Demographic data were collected for age, gender, nationality, Faculty (Business, Engineering and Science, Health Science, Humanities or Centre for Aboriginal Studies), place of residence while at university (living in a shared house, with a parent or guardian, as a boarder, alone, or with partner/children), and year of study. Social Connectedness feelings of social connection and positivity toward novel individuals on both explicit and implicit levels (source: Hutcherson, 2008). The need to belong and form social bonds is a significant motivator of behavior [22] . Social Connectedness Scale-Revised (SCS-R). Previously validated and reliable scales were included in the questionnaire. Nine independent raters assessed appropriateness of items, with two items deleted resulting in 74 items. Of the 90.6% of domestic students who completed the AUDIT questions, 40.7% were classified as hazardous drinkers. Participants were randomly recruited using two different strategies: email invitation and intercept. The majority of respondents lived with parent/s or guardian/s (n = 1418; 60.3%), followed by sharing a flat or residence (n = 590; 25.1%); living with a partner and/or children (n = 128; 5.4%), or living in student housing (n = 114; 4.9%). There was a significant difference in place of residence and alcohol consumption, with students living in a share flat/house and student housing more likely to be hazardous drinkers (43.3%; 48.9% respectively). Similarly, a study focusing on US and Canadian students (n = 71,860; n = 107 Institutions) found alcohol was one of the top ten factors affecting student’s mental health and academic performance [55] . 8 for social connectedness; 8 for social assurance Scale 6 point Likert scale Data collection format Self report Scoring key The items are added up for a total score – a higher score indicates more connectedness to others. A moderately significant association between lower levels of social identity and hazardous levels of alcohol consumption was found when all factors were considered. Thirty eight percent of the sample reported to drink at hazardous levels. When all factors were considered (Table 3) gender (p < 0.001), students’ living arrangements (p < 0.001), international student status (p < 0.001), hours spent at work (p < 0.001), participation in community sport (p < 0.001), the psychological distress (p < 0.001), and social connectedness (p = 0.001) were significant predictors of hazardous drinking, while participation in university sport (p < 0.05) was a moderately significant predictor of hazardous drinking. Males (42.5%) were more likely to participate in hazardous drinking compared to females (35.2%). Scores range from 20 … The social connectedness scale includes eight items consisting of a six level rating system (1 = agree to 6 = disagree); measuring connectedness (4 items), companionship (3 items) and affiliation (1 item). In addition, this study confirms an association between mental health problems and levels of alcohol consumption and informs the need for the inclusion of mental health strategies on campus. Peers have been found to be a significant influence on alcohol consumption with homogeneity of behaviors being common [42] . We Table 1. Social Connectedness. The authors acknowledge participants of this study who gave their time to complete the survey, the Curtin Office for Strategy and Planning and health promotion students for help in administering the survey. As a society, we may come out ahead in the end of this epidemic, if, instead of social distancing, we instead pursue physical distancing with social connectedness. A scale called the Personal Acquaintance Measurehas been developed to help a person measure their connectedness with another individual. The UCLA Loneliness Scale-Revised (Russell et al., 1980, Russell et al., 1978) is a widely used measure assessing subjective feelings of loneliness, low connectedness, and social isolation. Socially disconnected and lonely individuals tend to suffer higher rates of morbidity and mortality (Taylor, Repetti, & Seeman, 1997; Thoits, 1995) as well as infection (Cohen, Doyle, Skoner, Rabin, & Gwaltney, 1997; Pressman et al., 2005), depression (Heikkinen & Kauppinen, 2004), and cognitive decl… Higher psychological distress scores refers to higher levels of distress, depression/and or anxiety;3. But the last thing our fragmented world and health care need is more social distance. The university setting offers many opportunities for students to become connected with others [22] . The majority of students had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months (87%). The social identity scale uses a The high prevalence of hazardous alcohol consumption and mental health problems among university students along with the potential for the university as a setting for health promotion prompted this study. Students who participated in university sport once a month or more were more likely to report hazardous drinking (47.5%) compared to students who did not participate (35.9%). UCLA Loneliness Scale Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale. In this early study hazardous drinking levels were defined by using hazardous AUDIT scores and more than six standard drinks in one sitting during the last month [4] . Hunt, K. and Burns, S. (2017) Is There an Association between Social Connectedness, Social Identity, Alcohol Consumption and Mental Health among Young University Students?. The scale was validated in a study with 626 The findings of this study suggest social identity may offer some protection against hazardous alcohol, consumption. A longitudinal study which followed secondary school students, once at grade 8 (13 - 14 years old), grade 10 (16 years old), and one year post-secondary school, found students with good school and social connectedness to have the best health outcomes, however those with poor school connectedness but good social connectedness were at a greater risk of mental health problems and engaging in risky health behaviors, such as alcohol and other drug use [60] . Responses included: “none”, “1 - 5 hours”, “6 - 10 hours”, “11 - 20 hours” and “20+ hours”. This negative-worded 8-item measure, rated on a 6-point Likert scale, assesses how much a per-son feels they belong in social situations (Lee & Robbins, 1995). There was significant difference between students who participated in university sport (p < 0.001); and community sport (p < 0.001) and level of drinking. Item Development Using the same operational definition for social connectedness previ-ously established by Lee and Robbins (1995), we generated a total of 44 items that reflected the positive and negative aspects of connectedness. The 10 item AUDIT, which provides a measure of alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and alcohol related problems (Scores: 0 - 40) [39] was used to measure level of drinking. Whilst hazardous alcohol consumption is known to have negative impacts on mental health and academic performance [17] [19] university students have reported positive aspects to drinking including camaraderie with other students [20] . 1. For example amongst students, consuming alcohol has been linked to reducing anxiety involved in social situations and to improve their attractiveness to others [11] , a way of reducing or escaping negative emotions such as stress, anger or conflict [11] [12] and to fit in with peers [6] [10] . Respondents were enrolled in the following Faculties: Health Science (36.2%), Science and Engineering (22.3%), Humanities (21.4%), Business (18.4%) and the Centre for Aboriginal Studies (0.2%). This outcome is contradictory of a 2010 study that found greater earnings did not promote drinking, however the study did acknowledge that greater earnings could provide students with more money to spend on leisure activities, such as drinking [52] . This paper compares key factors for low risk and hazardous drinkers from a random cross sectional sample of 18 - 25 years old Western Australian university students. Higher scores reflect a higher level of social connectedness [47] . Mediating variables included hours spent per week, at work, in university classes, personal study, participation (never, once a month or more) in university clubs, university sports, community clubs and community sports, K10 score, social identity score and social connectedness score. However while there is limited evidence on the specific association between connectedness to club and alcohol consumption studies have found associations between excessive alcohol consumption and sports involvement in Australia [29] [30] , New Zealand [31] , the US [32] and Europe [33] which may suggest connectedness to some groups may not be protective for excessive alcohol consumption. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS v20. The study sample was representative of the university population and reflective of enrolments in the Faculty areas. Consistent with these findings, social identity, which refers to how someone identifies with the people and groups around them, at what level they feel they belong to that group and what value or importance they place on that group [34] has been identified as a predictor of intentions to binge drink, especially for those who strongly identify with the group [35] . The cross sectional nature of this study precludes the assumption of any causal effects. endstream endobj startxref The initial email coincided with the release of semester one results. The majority of the sample did not participate in university sports (82.0% n = 1548), university clubs (76.4% n = 1441), community sports (65.7% n = 1239) or community clubs (68.2%, n = 1287). Students were asked how many hours they spent in paid work, attending university classes and doing personal study each week. Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. I like the direct way that this one item scale attached measures social connectedness directly and visually. When considering all factors higher levels of psychological distress was found to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol consumption. While peer connections can promote positive social, emotional and behavioral attributes they also have the capacity to influence negative behaviors [64] . Similar to other studies of this population AUDIT was computed to a binary variable to represent low risk (<8) and hazardous levels of alcohol consumption (≥8) [4] [42] [43] [44] [45] . The literature regarding social connectedness as a protective factor for health behaviors is not conclusive. This study was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (HR 54/2013). Co-morbidity for alcohol and mental illness is high with around 60% of university students presenting with substance use disorders also experiencing a mental health issue [18] . This study was supported by Healthway (the Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation) project number 30104. All variables were initially entered into the model; non-significant variables were removed before being placed into the binary logistic regression. Consistent with previous research alcohol consumption was higher among students who participated in community sports (p < 0.001) and university sport (p < 0.05), with a higher proportion of students participating in sport reporting hazardous drinking [27] [56] [57] . Social connectedness refers to the relationships an individual has with others [22] , and can include relationships developed at home, school, work, special interest groups and within sporting groups. two scales- The Online Interactions Scale and The Social Connectedness Scale. Social connectedness has been identified as a protective factor for a range of health issues however the literature is not conclusive. Social Connectedness Scale. The higher the score the higher the level of distress. A total of 2506 surveys were included in the analysis. . Rate the degree to which you agree or disagree with each statement using the following scale (1 = Strongly Disagree and 6 = Strongly Agree). Items on the Social Connectedness Scale reflect feelings of emotional distance between the self and others, and higher scores reflect more social connectedness. (n = 556) indicated they may be experiencing mild levels of distress, mild depression and/or anxiety disorder. For analysis responses were collapsed into two categories of “never” and “once a month or more”. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. The majority of respondents were female (62.1% n = 1504), followed by male, 37.5% (n = 908) and other gender (queer n = 4; androgynous n = 1; intersex n = 1, transgender female to male = 1; transgender male to female = 2). The social connectedness scale includes eight items consist-ing of a six level rating system (1 = agree to 6 = disagree); measuring connected-ness (4 items), companionship (3 items) and affiliation (1 item). When all factors were considered identifying as an international student was a significant predictor of low risk drinking. ���ٲW 8�~�wo�X dHW4��. This 12-item scale was developed for use in the general population and is focused on assessing community connectedness in relation to geographically specific neighborhoods. An additional 681 students completed the survey through intercept interviews. Collaboration for Evidence, Research and Impact in Public Health, School of Public Health, Curtin University, This measure, which can be shared with other academic researchers, is called the Social Connectedness Index (SCI), and is based on anonymised data on the number of friendship links on Facebook, the world’s largest online social networking service. These scales were designed to gain insight on how students use social media as a means of social interaction, and to get a stronger sense of how connected students feel to UBC. Coefficient alpha = .95. Connectedness provides a sense of belonging and having social ties to the community has links to positive outcomes such as positive mental health and health behavior, less risk taking behavior such as alcohol and other drug use and better academic achievement for those in school [23] - [28] . Scores were computed to represent no or low levels of distress (10 - 19); mild levels of distress (20 - 24); moderate levels of depression/and or anxiety (25 - 29) and high levels of depression/or and anxiety (31 - 50) [46] . Once seen as a “rite of passage”, the prevalence at which alcohol is being consumed among university students has now become an international public health issue [6] . The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) measures the level of an individual’s distress, based on a five level response scale (Scores 10 to 50). Mashek, D., Stuewig, J., Furukawa, E., & Tangney, J. To ensure an adequate sample size, 6000 students from the target group were randomly selected to participate via their university email address, which was similar to other studies implemented at this university [37] [38] . Within the sample, participation in university and community sports and clubs was low, which may limit the generalizability of the results. When all factors were considered: gender, living arrangements, being a domestic student, hours spent at work, participation in university and community sport, higher levels of psychological distress, higher levels of social connectedness, and lower levels of social identity were significant predictors of hazardous alcohol consumption. Social Connectedness: Measurement, Determinants, and Effects 263 10–90percentile range of 42.5 to 67.4 percent; and over 70 percent of friends live within 200 … Social Connectedness Scale. Approximately ninety percent of the sample classified themselves as Australian (n = 1709, 90.6%) and 178 (9.4%) identified as international students. Predictors of low and hazardous drinking using univariate analysis (categorical variables). ethnicity, class standing, and where they live) and the revised Social Connectedness Scale (SCS-R). The social identity scale uses a five level rating system (1 = very much to 5 = not applicable); higher social identity scores reflect a lower level social identity with the people around them [46] . The scale was developed based on the theory of self-psychology and measures feelings of belongingness. Responses were received from 1825 students (30.4% response rate). 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